Mountain areas are considered the water towers of the world as they directly and indirectly influence water availability over a large area. However, most of the mountain areas are water deficient as water quickly drains off due to the steep gradients. The central Himalayas especially face shortages of water. In summer months water scarcity becomes acute. Agriculture remains majorly dependent on rain.
- Rainwater harvesting and storage for domestic uses.
- Rainwater storage tanks and ponds and water percolation tanks in agri-fields for minor irrigation and moisture retention.
- Bunding and contour trenching in fields for conserving soil moisture from rain.
- Creating percolation pits and staggered trenches to conserve soil moisture in village agri-fields and pastures.
- Introducing micro water systems like drip irrigation and sprinklers to conserve water in irrigation.
- Demo of recycling of grey water treatment for other uses.
- Dry toilets using minimal water.
- Twin pit latrines.
- Vertical Silos for composting bio-degradable waste in rural areas.